Alternating Current (AC) The flows of electricity that constantly changes direction between positive and negative sides. Almost all power produced by electric utilities in the United States (and used by homes and business) is AC current that shifts direction at a rate of 60 times per second.
“It’s not the renewables that’s the problem. It’s the state’s renewable policy that’s the problem,” said Gary Ackerman, president of the Western Power Trading Forum, an association of independent power producers. “We’re curtailing renewable energy in the summertime months. In the spring, we have to give people money to take it off our hands.”
You can check how much renewable energy your supplier (or any other) is producing by looking at its ‘fuel mix’ information. This information should be on their website, because suppliers are required by Ofgem to publish these figures annually. It shows how much of the power they sell has come from coal, gas, nuclear sources, renewable sources and other sources.
As of 2007, the total installed capacity of solar hot water systems was approximately 154 thermal gigawatt (GWth). China is the world leader in their deployment with 70 GWth installed as of 2006 and a long-term goal of 210 GWth by 2020. Israel and Cyprus are the per capita leaders in the use of solar hot water systems with over 90% of homes using them. In the United States, Canada, and Australia, heating swimming pools is the dominant application of solar hot water with an installed capacity of 18 GWth as of 2005.
RECs, also known as green certificates, green tags, or tradable renewable certificates, are financial products that are available for sale, purchase, or trade. These financial products allow the purchaser to pay for renewable generation without physically or contractually delivering electricity generated from qualifying energy sources.
Jump up ^ Ellabban, Omar; Abu-Rub, Haitham; Blaabjerg, Frede (2014). “Renewable energy resources: Current status, future prospects and their enabling technology”. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 39: 748–764 . doi:10.1016/j.rser.2014.07.113.
Other water-splitting cycles can also be developed. The water-splitting schemes WS2 and WS3 presented in Scheme 2 use basic reaction types that are common to organometallic catalysis. However, for the water-splitting problem, O, as opposed to C or N, needs to be managed. Every reaction, however, does have a precedent for carbon or nitrogen. In WS2 in Scheme 2, oxidative addition across XH (X = C, N) bonds is a basic reaction of organometallic chemistry but is not yet well established for water (38–43). If this reaction can be achieved cleanly, hydrogen may be generated by α-H abstraction, which is a common reaction in organometallic chemistry and is used to generate metal–ligand multiple bonds. For instance, the α-H abstraction of metal alkylidenes produces alkylidynes (44). But α-H abstraction to produce metal-oxo species, and H2 is uncommon for well defined hydroxo–hydrido complexes. In the case of WS3, the water–gas shift reaction produces H2 from H2O using CO as the reductant. An intense research effort, beginning in the 1970s and ending in the 1980s, provided the basic science for the development of catalysts to effect the water–gas shift reaction (45). However, the reaction must be closed by the conversion of CO2 to CO. On this front, little is known. Some inroads to CO2 reduction have been made on photo– (46, 47) and electro– (48–50) catalytic fronts, but generally the precise path to CO2 reduction is ill-defined, making it difficult to improve these systems by design. A recent report of CO2 reduction by a well defined homogeneous metal complex operating at high turnover number and frequency (51) is a harbinger of the promise that basic science holds for the design of efficient CO2 reduction catalysts.
Several large-scale energy storage suggestions for the grid have been done. Worldwide there is over 100 GW of Pumped-storage hydroelectricity. This improves efficiency and decreases energy losses but a conversion to an energy storing mains electricity grid is a very costly solution. Some costs could potentially be reduced by making use of energy storage equipment the consumer buys and not the state. An example is batteries in electric cars that would double as an energy buffer for the electricity grid. However besides the cost, setting-up such a system would still be a very complicated and difficult procedure. Also, energy storage apparatus’ as car batteries are also built with materials that pose a threat to the environment (e.g. Lithium). The combined production of batteries for such a large part of the population would still have environmental concerns. Besides car batteries however, other Grid energy storage projects make use of less polluting energy carriers (e.g. compressed air tanks and flywheel energy storage).
Ground mounted photovoltaic system are usually large, utility-scale solar power plants. Their solar modules are held in place by racks or frames that are attached to ground based mounting supports. Ground based mounting supports include:
Dry or wet / flooded refers to whether or not the electrolyte is liquid. A dry cell means that the electrolyte is a solid powder electrolyte; a wet cell means that the electrolyte is liquid and is allowed to flow freely in within the cell casing. Dry cell batteries are used in flashlights, toys, radios, laptops and mobile phones.
Solar power is arguably the cleanest, most reliable form of renewable energy available, and it can be used in several forms to help power your home or business. Solar-powered photovoltaic (PV) panels convert the sun’s rays into electricity by exciting electrons in silicon cells using the photons of light from the sun. This electricity can then be used to supply renewable energy to your home or business.
Solar Energy International (SEI), Colorado Solar Energy Industries Association (COSEIA), and GRID Alternatives are teaming up again to bring you the Colorado Solar Career Expo powered by Solar Ready Colorado. The Colorado Solar Career Expo will take place on March 14 from 1:30 to 4 p.m. at the Hyatt Regency Aurora Conference Center in Aurora, […]
Back in January, the Edison Electric Institute — the (typically stodgy and backward-looking) trade group of U.S. investor-owned utilities — released a report [PDF] that, as far as I can tell, went almost entirely without notice in the press. That’s a shame. It is one of the most prescient and brutally frank things I’ve ever read about the power sector. It is a rare thing to hear an industry tell the tale of its own incipient obsolescence.
Solar dish/engine systems use a mirrored dish similar to a very large satellite dish. To reduce costs, the mirrored dish is usually composed of many smaller flat mirrors formed into a dish shape. The dish-shaped surface directs and concentrates sunlight onto a thermal receiver, which absorbs and collects the heat and transfers it to an engine generator. The most common type of heat engine used in dish/engine systems is the Stirling engine. This system uses the fluid heated by the receiver to move pistons and create mechanical power. The mechanical power runs a generator or alternator to produce electricity.
The sun’s heat also drives the winds, whose energy, is captured with wind turbines. Then, the winds and the sun’s heat cause water to evaporate. When this water vapor turns into rain or snow and flows downhill into rivers or streams, its energy can be captured using hydroelectric power.
Biofuels provided 3% of the world’s transport fuel in 2010. https://www.youtube.com/edit?o=U&video_id=rL-8JDGk1Ps for blending biofuels exist in 31 countries at the national level and in 29 states/provinces. According to the International Energy Agency, biofuels have the potential to meet more than a quarter of world demand for transportation fuels by 2050.
In the United States, heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems account for 30% (4.65 EJ/yr) of the energy used in commercial buildings and nearly 50% (10.1 EJ/yr) of the energy used in residential buildings. Solar heating, cooling and ventilation technologies can be used to offset a portion of this energy.
A Renewable Portfolio Standard refers to legislation that creates a market in tradeable renewable or green electricity certificates. Electricity distributors or wholesaler purchasers of electricity are required to source a specified percentage of their electricity (portfolio) from renewable generation sources. Liable entities that fall short of their quota can purchase certificates from accredited suppliers who have generated renewable electricity and obtained and registered certificates to sell on that market.
Your heart begins to pound as the lights in your RV cut out, until you remember you have a backup generator. With a portable solar power generator, you no longer have to worry about losing power on the road. Unlike gas generators, they come with fewer odors, less hassle, and a reduced risk of explosion. Featuring solar panels that attach to the top or the side, these generators absorb the sun’s rays and then converts them into electricity. Now you can fire up your electric oven, listen to your favorite CDs, or even relax while watching a movie no matter where you are. Not only can you use it on the road, you can store one in your garage for emergencies. From thunderstorms to hurricanes, solar powered generators are excellent for keeping your essentials running when the weather interrupts your usual electricity supply. When you shop among the large inventory on eBay, there are many portable solar power generators from which to choose. Once yours arrives, just charge it up and head out onto the road for an exciting journey.
First-generation technologies emerged from the industrial revolution at the end of the 19th century and include hydropower, biomass combustion and geothermal power and heat. Some of these technologies are still in widespread use.
Data published on Tuesday by the not-for-profit environmental impact researcher CDP found that 101 of the more than 570 cities on its books sourced at least 70% of their electricity from renewable sources in 2017, compared to 42 in 2015.
Remember, too, that these utilities are not Google or Facebook. They are not accustomed to a state of constant market turmoil and reinvention. This is a venerable old boys network, working very comfortably within a business model that has been around, virtually unchanged, for a century. A friggin’ century, more or less without innovation, and now they’re supposed to scramble and be all hip and new-age? Unlikely.
Active solar heating systems use a collector and a fluid that absorbs solar radiation. Fans or pumps circulate air or heat-absorbing liquids through collectors and then transfer the heated fluid directly to a room or to a heat storage system. Active water heating systems usually have a tank for storing solar heated water.
Research is also undertaken in this field of artificial photosynthesis. It involves the use of nanotechnology to store solar electromagnetic energy in chemical bonds, by splitting water to produce hydrogen fuel or then combining with carbon dioxide to make biopolymers such as methanol. Many large national and regional research projects on artificial photosynthesis are now trying to develop techniques integrating improved light capture, quantum coherence methods of electron transfer and cheap catalytic materials that operate under a variety of atmospheric conditions. Senior researchers in the field have made the public policy case for a Global Project on Artificial Photosynthesis to address critical energy security and environmental sustainability issues.
However, when it comes to renewable energy systems and PV, it is not just large systems that matter. Building-integrated photovoltaics or “onsite” PV systems use existing land and structures and generate power close to where it is consumed.
After passing through the Earth’s atmosphere, most of the Sun’s energy is in the form of visible light and infrared light radiation. Plants convert the energy in sunlight into chemical energy (sugars and starches) through the process of photosynthesis. Humans regularly use this store of energy in various ways, as when they burn wood or fossil fuels, or when simply eating plants, fish and animals.