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Renewable energy resources exist over wide geographical areas, in contrast to other energy sources, which are concentrated in a limited number of countries. Rapid deployment of renewable energy and energy efficiency is resulting in significant energy security, climate change mitigation, and economic benefits.[7] The results of a recent review of the literature[8] concluded that as greenhouse gas (GHG) emitters begin to be held liable for damages resulting from GHG emissions resulting in climate change, a high value for liability mitigation would provide powerful incentives for deployment of renewable energy technologies. In international public opinion surveys there is strong support for promoting renewable sources such as solar power and wind power.[9] At the national level, at least 30 nations around the world already have renewable energy contributing more than 20 percent of energy supply. National renewable energy markets are projected to continue to grow strongly in the coming decade and beyond.[10] Some places and at least two countries, Iceland and Norway generate all their electricity using renewable energy already, and many other countries have the set a goal to reach 100% renewable energy in the future. For example, in Denmark the government decided to switch the total energy supply (electricity, mobility and heating/cooling) to 100% renewable energy by 2050.[11]

Solar water heating makes an important contribution to renewable heat in many countries, most notably in China, which now has 70% of the global total (180 GWth). Most of these systems are installed on multi-family apartment buildings and meet a portion of the hot water needs of an estimated 50–60 million households in China. Worldwide, total installed solar water heating systems meet a portion of the water heating needs of over 70 million households. The use of biomass for heating continues to grow as well. In Sweden, national use of biomass energy has surpassed that of oil. Direct geothermal for heating is also growing rapidly.[27] The newest addition to Heating is from Geothermal Heat Pumps which provide both heating and cooling, and also flatten the electric demand curve and are thus an increasing national priority[28][29] (see also Renewable thermal energy).

A March 2017 state report showed why critics are confident that the area will be fine without a new plant: The need for power from Redondo Beach’s existing four natural gas units has been so low, the state found, that the units have operated at less than 5% of their capacity during the last four years.

Thorium is a fissionable material used in thorium-based nuclear power. The thorium fuel cycle claims several potential advantages over a uranium fuel cycle, including greater abundance, superior physical and nuclear properties, better resistance to nuclear weapons proliferation[143][144][145] and reduced plutonium and actinide production.[145] Therefore, it is sometimes referred as sustainable.[146]

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At the end of 2014, worldwide PV capacity reached at least 177,000 megawatts. Photovoltaics grew fastest in China, followed by Japan and the United States, while Germany remains the world’s largest overall producer of photovoltaic power, contributing about 7.0 percent to the overall electricity generation. Italy meets 7.9 percent of its electricity demands with photovoltaic power—the highest share worldwide.[117] For 2015, global cumulative capacity is forecasted to increase by more than 50 gigawatts (GW). By 2018, worldwide capacity is projected to reach as much as 430 gigawatts. This corresponds to a tripling within five years.[118] Solar power is forecasted to become the world’s largest source of electricity by 2050, with solar photovoltaics and concentrated solar power contributing 16% and 11%, respectively. This requires an increase of installed PV capacity to 4,600 GW, of which more than half is expected to be deployed in China and India.[119]

Availability factor Automatic Generation Control Backfeeding Base load Black start Capacity factor Demand factor Droop speed control Economic dispatch Demand management EROEI Fault Home energy storage Grid storage Intermittency Load factor Load following Nameplate capacity Peak demand Power quality Power-flow study Repowering Utility frequency Variability

Gasoline, coal, natural gas, diesel, plastics and other fossil fuels are not renewable. They take millions of years to be made, and cannot be renewed in a human lifetime or even a nation’s lifetime. Ways have been developed to make biodegradable plastic and biodiesel and other fuels from renewable resources such as corn, sugar cane, soybeans and canola.

Wind Power. The movement of the atmosphere is driven by differences of temperature at the Earth’s surface due to varying temperatures of the Earth’s surface when lit by sunlight. Wind energy can be used to pump water or generate electricity, but requires extensive areal coverage to produce significant amounts of energy.

Climate change and global warming concerns, coupled with high oil prices, peak oil, and increasing government support, are driving increasing renewable energy legislation, incentives and commercialization.[9] New government spending, regulation and policies helped the industry weather the global financial crisis better than many other sectors.[23] According to a 2011 projection by the International Energy Agency, solar power generators may produce most of the world’s electricity within 50 years, reducing the emissions of greenhouse gases that harm the environment.[24]

In contrast, fossil fuel prices can vary dramatically and are prone to substantial price swings. For example, there was a rapid increase in US coal prices due to rising global demand before 2008, then a rapid fall after 2008 when global demands declined [23]. Likewise, natural gas prices have fluctuated greatly since 2000 [25].

The first three are active solar systems, which use mechanical or electrical devices that convert the sun’s heat or light to another form of usable energy. Passive solar buildings are designed and oriented to collect, store, and distribute the heat energy from sunlight to maintain the comfort of the occupants without the use of moving parts or electronics.

Liquid-based systems heat water or an antifreeze solution in a “hydronic” collector, whereas air-based systems heat air in an “air collector.”[28] Both air and liquid systems can supplement forced air systems.

Jan. 25, 2018 — Researchers in Japan have built on their previous work to develop new advanced organic polymer. When applied in the solar cells, the polymers formed as amorphous films, which maintained high power … read more

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Solar radiation reaches the Earth’s upper Earth’s atmosphere with the power of 1366 watts per square meter (W/m2). Since the Earth is round, the surface nearer its poles is angled away from the Sun and receives much less solar energy than the surface nearer the equator.

…of chlorophyll pigment, which uses solar energy to produce carbohydrates out of water and carbon dioxide. The overall efficiency of this critical process is somewhat low, and its mechanics are extremely complex. It is related to light intensity, wavelength, temperature, carbon dioxide concentration in the air, and the respiration rate…

India is another rising clean energy leader. While India ranked the 10th in private clean energy investments among G-20 members in 2009, over the next 10 years it is expected to rise to the third position, with annual clean energy investment under current policies forecast to grow by 369 percent between 2010 and 2020.[148]

The sunlight that reaches the ground consists of nearly 50 percent visible light, 45 percent infrared radiation, and smaller amounts of ultraviolet and other forms of electromagnetic radiation. This radiation can be converted either into thermal energy (heat) or into electrical energy, though the former is easier to accomplish. Two main types of devices are used to capture solar energy and convert it to thermal energy: flat-plate collectors and concentrating collectors. Because the intensity of solar radiation at the Earth’s surface is so low, both types of collectors must be large in area. Even in sunny parts of the world’s temperate regions, for instance, a collector must have a surface area of about 40 square metres (430 square feet) to gather enough energy to serve the energy needs of one person.

Concentrated photovoltaics (CPV) systems employ sunlight concentrated onto photovoltaic surfaces for the purpose of electricity generation. Thermoelectric, or “thermovoltaic” devices convert a temperature difference between dissimilar materials into an electric current.

When there isn’t demand for all the power the state is producing, CAISO needs to quickly sell the excess to avoid overloading the electricity grid, which can cause blackouts. Basic solar panels kick in. Oversupply causes prices to fall, even below zero. That’s because Arizona has to curtail its own sources of electricity to take California’s power when it doesn’t really need it, which can cost money. So Arizona will use power from California at times like this only if it has an economic incentive — which means being paid.

The time will arrive when the industry of Europe will cease to find those natural resources, so necessary for it. Petroleum springs and coal mines are not inexhaustible but are rapidly diminishing in many places. Will man, then, return to the power of water and wind? Or will he emigrate where the most powerful source of heat sends its rays to all? History will show what will come.[34]

Off-grid PV systems have traditionally used rechargeable batteries to store excess electricity. With grid-tied systems, excess electricity can be sent to the transmission grid, while standard grid electricity can be used to meet shortfalls. Net metering programs give household systems a credit for any electricity they deliver to the grid. This is handled by ‘rolling back’ the meter whenever the home produces more electricity than it consumes. If the net electricity use is below zero, the utility then rolls over the kilowatt hour credit to the next month.[105] Other approaches involve the use of two meters, to measure electricity consumed vs. electricity produced. This is less common due to the increased installation cost of the second meter. Most standard meters accurately measure in both directions, making a second meter unnecessary.

When water is used to generate electricity, it is called hydroelectric power, or hydropower. Most hydropower plants use a dam on a river to create a reservoir to store water. As water is released from the reservoir, it flows through a turbine and causes it to spin. This activates a generator that produces electricity.

Bio-fuels may be defined as “renewable,” yet may not be “sustainable,” due to soil degradation. As of 2012, 40% of American corn production goes toward ethanol. Ethanol takes up a large percentage of “Clean Energy Use” when in fact, it is still debatable whether ethanol should be considered as a “Clean Energy.”[36]

In its 2014 edition of the Technology Roadmap: Solar Photovoltaic Energy report, the International Energy Agency (IEA) published prices for residential, commercial and utility-scale PV systems for eight major markets as of 2013 (see table below).[2] However, DOE’s SunShot Initiative has reported much lower U.S. installation prices. In 2014, prices continued to decline. The SunShot Initiative modeled U.S. system prices to be in the range of $1.80 to $3.29 per watt.[56] Other sources identify similar price ranges of $1.70 to $3.50 for the different market segments in the U.S.,[57] and in the highly penetrated German market, prices for residential and small commercial rooftop systems of up to 100 kW declined to $1.36 per watt (€1.24/W) by the end of 2014.[58] In 2015, Deutsche Bank estimated costs for small residential rooftop systems in the U.S. around $2.90 per watt. Costs for utility-scale systems in China and India were estimated as low as $1.00 per watt.[59]

Unlike various conventional energy sources, solar energy does not become depleted by use and does not pollute the environment. Two branches of development may be noted—namely, photothermal and photovoltaic technologies. In photothermal devices, sunlight is used to heat a substance, as, for example, water, to produce steam with which to…

Alternative energy Efficient energy use Energy development Energy recovery Fuel (alternative fuel biofuel carbon negative fuel hydrogen technologies) List of energy storage projects Renewable energy (commercialization) Sustainable energy Transportation (electric vehicle hybrid vehicle)

Off-Grid, like several of its competitors, finances the panels, so that people can pay the same small monthly amounts they were paying for kerosene. Customers in Tanzania put down about thirteen dollars to buy Off-Grid’s cheapest starter kit: a panel, a battery, a few L.E.D. lights, a phone charger, and a radio. Then they pay about eight dollars a month for three years, after which they own the products outright. The most popular system adds a few more lights and a flat-screen TV, for a higher down payment and about twice the monthly price. Customers pay their bill by phone; if they don’t pay, the system stops working, and after a while it is repossessed. That scenario, it turns out, is uncommon: less than two per cent of the loans in Tanzania have gone bad.

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Carbon offset Cost of electricity by source Ecotax Energy subsidies Feed-in tariff Fossil-fuel phase-out Net metering Pigovian tax Renewable Energy Certificates Renewable energy payments Renewable energy policy Spark/Dark/Quark/Bark spread

Thermal mass systems can store solar energy in the form of heat at domestically useful temperatures for daily or interseasonal durations. Thermal storage systems generally use readily available materials with high specific heat capacities such as water, earth and stone. Well-designed systems can lower peak demand, shift time-of-use to off-peak hours and reduce overall heating and cooling requirements.[101][102]

Several states and individual electric utilities in the United States have established special rates for purchasing electricity from certain types of renewable energy systems. These rates, sometimes known as feed-in tariffs (FITs), are generally higher than retail electricity rates to encourage new projects of specific types of renewable energy technologies.

Biomass, biogas and biofuels are burned to produce heat/power and in doing so harm the environment. Pollutants such as sulphurous oxides (SOx), nitrous oxides (NOx), and particulate matter (PM) are produced from this combustion; the World Health Organisation estimates that 7 million premature deaths are caused each year by air pollution.[114] Biomass combustion is a major contributor.[114][115][116]

Below is a quick overview of solar power today. Below the overview, I’ve also added a number of additional solar power resources which are worth exploring if you want to take an even deeper dive into the subject.

Third-generation technologies are not yet widely demonstrated or commercialised. They are on the horizon and may have potential comparable to other renewable energy technologies, but still depend on attracting sufficient attention and RD&D funding. These newest technologies include advanced biomass gasification, biorefinery technologies, solar thermal power stations, hot dry rock geothermal energy and ocean energy.

The consumption of biofuels and other nonhydroelectric renewable energy sources more than doubled from 2000 to 2016, mainly because of state and federal government mandates and incentives for renewable energy. The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) projects that the use of renewable energy in the United States will continue to grow through 2040.

The smallest photovoltaic systems power calculators and wrist watches. Larger systems can provide electricity to pump water, to power communications equipment, to supply electricity for a single home or business, or to form large arrays that supply electricity to thousands of electricity consumers.

After passing through the Earth’s atmosphere, most of the Sun’s energy is in the form of visible light and infrared light radiation. Plants convert the energy in sunlight into chemical energy (sugars and starches) through the process of photosynthesis. Humans regularly use this store of energy in various ways, as when they burn wood or fossil fuels, or when simply eating plants, fish and animals.

The Coleman 18-Watt Solar Battery Charging Kit comes The Coleman 18-Watt Solar Battery Charging Kit comes with a 7 Amp charge controller and is ideal for charging 12-Volt batteries of cars RVs boats tractors ATVs electric fences and deer feeders. The kit’s amorphous solar panel is operational in all weather. Complete unit includes: alligator clamps charge controller wire …  More + Product Details Close

Utility investors are accustomed to large, long-term, reliable investments with a 30-year cost recovery — fossil fuel plants, basically. The cost of those investments, along with investments in grid maintenance and reliability, are spread by utilities across all ratepayers in a service area. What happens if a bunch of those ratepayers start reducing their demand or opting out of the grid entirely? Well, the same investments must now be spread over a smaller group of ratepayers. In other words: higher rates for those who haven’t switched to solar.

Potential induced degradation (also called PID) is a potential induced performance degradation in crystalline photovoltaic modules, caused by so-called stray currents. [19]This effect may cause power loss of up to 30%.[20]

^ Li, Wei; Rubin, Tzameret H.; Onyina, Paul A. (2013-05-01). “Comparing Solar Water Heater Popularization Policies in China, Israel and Australia: The Roles of Governments in Adopting Green Innovations”. Sustainable Development. 21 (3): 160–170. doi:10.1002/sd.1547. ISSN 1099-1719.

In one technique, long troughs of U-shaped mirrors focus sunlight on a pipe of oil that runs through the middle. The hot oil then boils water for electricity generation. Another technique uses moveable mirrors to focus the sun’s rays on a collector tower, where a receiver sits. Molten salt flowing through the receiver is heated to run a generator.

Oct. 29, 2015 — Global expansion of bioenergy possesses serious threats to biodiversity, whereas solar energy could have potential for power provision with limited impacts on biodiversity, say … read more

Solar technologies are characterized as either passive or active depending on the way they capture, convert and distribute sunlight and enable solar energy solar power be harnessed at different levels around the world, mostly depending on distance from the equator. Although solar energy refers primarily to the use of solar radiation for practical ends, all renewable energies, other than Geothermal power and Tidal power, derive their energy either directly or indirectly from the Sun.

A 14-Watt panel reengineered to be lighter and smarter, the Nomad 14 Plus Solar Panel has the innovative technology to charge USB devices directly from the sun. Detachable kickstand for modularity and power-flow indicator ensure the best solar charging experience.

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The US National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), in harmonizing the disparate estimates of life-cycle GHG emissions for solar PV, found that the most critical parameter was the solar insolation of the site: GHG emissions factors for PV solar are inversely proportional to insolation.[105] For a site with insolation of 1700 kWh/m2/year, typical of southern Europe, NREL researchers estimated GHG emissions of 45 gCO2e/kWh. Using the same assumptions, at Phoenix, USA, with insolation of 2400 kWh/m2/year, the GHG emissions factor would be reduced to 32 g of CO2e/kWh.[106]

Hydropower—Hydropower is electricity produced from flowing water. Most hydropower produced in the United States is from large facilities built by the federal government, such as the Grand Coulee Dam on the Columbia River in Washington state—the largest single U.S. electric power facility. There are two general types of hydropower:

In the last two decades, photovoltaics (PV), also known as solar PV, has evolved from a pure niche market of small scale applications towards becoming a mainstream electricity source. A solar cell is a device that converts light directly into electricity using the photoelectric effect. The first solar cell was constructed by Charles Fritts in the 1880s.[60] In 1931 a German engineer, Dr Bruno Lange, developed a photo cell using silver selenide in place of copper oxide.[61] Although the prototype selenium cells converted less than 1% of incident light into electricity, both Ernst Werner von Siemens and James Clerk Maxwell recognized the importance of this discovery.[62] Following the work of Russell Ohl in the 1940s, researchers Gerald Pearson, Calvin Fuller and Daryl Chapin created the crystalline silicon solar cell in 1954.[63] These early solar cells cost 286 USD/watt and reached efficiencies of 4.5–6%.[64] By 2012 available efficiencies exceeded 20%, and the maximum efficiency of research photovoltaics was in excess of 40%.[65]

Your heart begins to pound as the lights in your RV cut out, until you remember you have a backup generator. With a portable solar power generator, you no longer have to worry about losing power on the road. Unlike gas generators, they come with fewer odors, less hassle, and a reduced risk of explosion. Featuring solar panels that attach to the top or the side, these generators absorb the sun’s rays and then converts them into electricity. Now you can fire up your electric oven, listen to your favorite CDs, or even relax while watching a movie no matter where you are. Not only can you use it on the road, you can store one in your garage for emergencies. From thunderstorms to hurricanes, solar powered generators are excellent for keeping your essentials running when the weather interrupts your usual electricity supply. When you shop among the large inventory on eBay, there are many portable solar power generators from which to choose. Once yours arrives, just charge it up and head out onto the road for an exciting journey.

Jan. 17, 2018 — In an advance that could push cheap, ubiquitous solar power closer to reality, researchers have found a way to coax electrons to travel much further than was previously thought possible in the … read more

Müller, Reto; Steinfeld, A. (2007). “Band-approximated radiative heat transfer analysis of a solar chemical reactor for the thermal dissociation of zinc oxide”. Solar Energy. 81 (10): 1285–1294. Bibcode:2007SoEn…81.1285M. doi:10.1016/j.solener.2006.12.006.

Alternative energy Efficient energy use Energy development Energy recovery Fuel (alternative fuel biofuel carbon negative fuel hydrogen technologies) List of energy storage projects Renewable energy (commercialization) Sustainable energy Transportation (electric vehicle hybrid vehicle)

The primary obstacle that is preventing the large scale implementation of solar powered energy generation is the inefficiency of current solar technology. Currently, photovoltaic (PV) panels only have the ability to convert around 24% of the sunlight that hits them into electricity.[93] At this rate, solar energy still holds many challenges for widespread implementation, but steady progress has been made in reducing manufacturing cost and increasing photovoltaic efficiency. Both Sandia National Laboratories and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), have heavily funded solar research programs. The NREL solar program has a budget of around $75 million [94] and develops research projects in the areas of photovoltaic (PV) technology, solar thermal energy, and solar radiation.[95] The budget for Sandia’s solar division is unknown, however it accounts for a significant percentage of the laboratory’s $2.4 billion budget.[96] Several academic programs have focused solar panels solar research in recent years. The Solar Energy Research Center (SERC) at University of North Carolina (UNC) has the sole purpose of developing cost effective solar technology. In 2008, researchers at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) developed a method to store solar energy by using it to produce hydrogen fuel from water.[97] Such research is targeted at addressing the obstacle that solar development faces of storing energy for use during nighttime hours when the sun is not shining. In February 2012, North Carolina-based Semprius Inc., a solar development company backed by German corporation Siemens, announced that they had developed the world’s most efficient solar panel. The company claims that the prototype converts 33.9% of the sunlight that hits it to electricity, more than double the previous high-end conversion rate.[98] Major projects on artificial photosynthesis or solar fuels are also under way in many developed nations.[99]

Of course, setting goals and actually achieving them are two very different things. Indeed, the path to 80 percent renewables will pose its own unique challenges. The effects of diminishing returns will soon come into play, Brown explained. “Once we get to about 50 percent, we’re going to start to run into new challenges — the second 50 percent will be trickier than the first 50 percent.” Should we continually produce renewable energy at times when there is already excess generation, the value of that energy will decrease, Brown notes.

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Geothermal power plants can operate 24 hours per day, providing base-load capacity, and the world potential capacity for geothermal power generation is estimated at 85 GW over the next 30 years. However, geothermal power is accessible only in limited areas of the world, including the United States, Central America, East Africa, Iceland, Indonesia, and the Philippines. The costs of geothermal energy have dropped substantially from the systems built in the 1970s.[10] Geothermal heat generation can be competitive in many countries producing geothermal power, or in other regions where the resource is of a lower temperature. Enhanced geothermal system (EGS) technology does not require natural convective hydrothermal resources, so it can be used in areas that were previously unsuitable for geothermal power, if the resource is very large. EGS is currently under research at the U.S. Department of Energy.

Unlike various conventional energy sources, solar energy does not become depleted by use and does not pollute the environment. Two branches of development may be noted—namely, photothermal and photovoltaic technologies. In photothermal devices, sunlight is used to heat a substance, as, for example, water, to produce steam with which to…

Solar electricity, on the other hand, has become inexpensive, in part because the price of solar panels has fallen at the same time that the efficiency of light bulbs and appliances has dramatically increased. In 2009, a single compact fluorescent bulb and a lead-acid battery cost about forty dollars; now, using L.E.D. bulbs and lithium-ion batteries, you can get four times as much light for the same price. In 2009, a radio, a mobile-phone charger, and a solar system big enough to provide four hours of light and television a day would have cost a Kenyan a thousand dollars; now it’s three hundred and fifty dollars.

The panels in Manchester were modern models, and had a shut off switch that allowed the firefighters to de-electrify panels. But they got lucky. While the firefighting community has started to recognize and plan for the risks of electrified roofs, they still don’t have all the necessary rules and tools to work around them.

Although renewable facilities require upfront investments to build, they can then operate at very low cost (for most clean energy technologies, the “fuel” is free). As a result, renewable energy prices can be very stable over time.

Shea Hughes, Off-Grid’s product manager, is one of the employees charged with delivering on that promise. Hughes told me that he hopes to someday make Off-Grid’s product powerful enough to perform industrial tasks: pumping water for irrigation, milling cacao, and so on. “I’m confident solar is capable of doing that,” he said. “You just add more panels and you get to the power requirements you need. And as the price drops, well . . . ” He had recently been to a consumer-electronics fair in China. “I was amazed to see the prices,” he said.

This past winter was one of the worst on record for the northeast, but the snow didn’t stop U.S. homeowners from investing in solar paneling. According to the Solar Energy Industries Association (SEIA), 2015’s first quarter broke records, with 66,440 new solar systems getting installed in the first three months of the year. That brings the total U.S. households with solar to approximately 700,000.

Tethys is an online knowledge management system that provides the marine and hydrokinetic energy (MHK) and offshore wind (OSW) communities with access to information and scientific literature on environmental effects of MHK and OSW developments.

Net metering allows electric utility customers to install qualifying renewable energy systems on their properties and to connect the systems to an electric utility’s distribution system (or grid). The programs vary, but in general, electric utilities bill their net metering customers for the net amount of electricity the customers use. The net amount is the customer’s total electricity consumption minus the amount of electricity that the customer’s renewable system generates. In some states, customers can sell the excess electricity that they generate with their systems to the utility. As of July 2017, 38 states and the District of Columbia have state-developed mandatory net metering rules for certain utilities. Two states do not have statewide rules, but some utilities in those states allow net metering, and seven states have statewide distributed generation compensation rules other than net metering.

The bottom line is that GTL technologies are an ideal solution for reducing gas flaring and CO2 venting while boosting returns, but it’s only prudent for refineries and chemical facilities to pursue projects that utilise the most efficient GTL technologies available for use in small-scale applications.

In 2006 California approved the ‘California Solar Initiative’, offering a choice of investment subsidies or FIT for small and medium systems and a FIT for large systems. The small-system FIT of $0.39 per kWh (far less than EU countries) expires in just 5 years, and the alternate “EPBB” residential investment incentive is modest, averaging perhaps 20% of cost. All California incentives are scheduled to decrease in the future depending as a function of the amount of PV capacity installed.

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But what happened in March shows how the growing supply of solar power could have a much greater impact in the future. The periods of “negative pricing” lasted longer than in the past — often for six hours at a time, and once for eight hours, according to a CAISO report.

In the Mojave Desert at the California/Nevada border, the Ivanpah Solar Electric Generating System uses 347,000 garage-door-sized mirrors to heat water that powers steam generators. This solar thermal plant — one of the clean energy facilities that helps produce 10% of the state’s electricity. (Mark Boster / Los Angeles Times)

Many are familiar with so-called photovoltaic cells, or solar panels, found on things like spacecraft, rooftops, and handheld calculators. The cells are made of semiconductor materials like those found in computer chips. When sunlight hits the cells, it knocks electrons loose from their atoms. As the electrons flow through the cell, they generate electricity.

To meet the (arguably optimistic) Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change projection in the Table 1 scenario for the average carbon intensity in 2050, the projected carbon intensity in 2050 is ≈0.45 kg of C yr−1 W−1, which is lower than that of any of the fossil fuels. The only way one can reach this value of the mean carbon intensity is through a significant contribution of carbon-free power to the total energy mix. This conclusion holds for an economy entirely based on natural gas; to the extent that the mix of consumed fossil fuels is not 100% natural gas but is roughly also equal parts oil and coal, even more carbon-free energy is required to maintain the average of the energy mix at the 0.45 kg of C yr−1 W−1 value. In fact, the amount of carbon-free power required in 2050 to meet these carbon intensity targets is >10 TW and is much greater than 10 TW if emissions are to be lowered such that CO2 can be stabilized at 550 ppm. Even more carbon-free power will be required later in the 21st century if CO2 levels are to be kept below 550 ppm or if a lower atmospheric CO2 target level is desired. By almost any reasonable estimate, stabilization of atmospheric CO2 levels at 550 ppm or lower will require as much carbon-neutral power by approximately the year 2050 as the amount of power produced at present from all energy sources combined (4). Furthermore, because CO2 emissions are cumulative on a century-level timescale, even higher levels of carbon-neutral power are required by 2050 if their introduction does not start immediately with a constant rampup but instead are delayed by 20 yr for their commissioning while awaiting technology development and/or policy and socioeconomic interventions.

Technologies promote sustainable energy including renewable energy sources, such as hydroelectricity, solar energy, wind energy, wave power,[citation needed] geothermal energy, bioenergy, tidal power and also technologies designed to improve energy efficiency. Costs have decreased immensely throughout the years, and continue to fall. Increasingly, effective government policies support investor confidence and these markets are expanding. Considerable progress is being made in the energy transition from fossil fuels to ecologically sustainable systems, to the point where many studies support 100% renewable energy.

In 2011, a report by the International Energy Agency found that solar energy technologies such as photovoltaics, solar hot water and concentrated solar power could provide a third of the world’s energy by 2060 if politicians commit to limiting climate change. The energy from the sun could play a key role in de-carbonizing the global economy alongside improvements in energy efficiency and imposing costs on greenhouse gas emitters. “The strength of solar is the incredible variety and flexibility of applications, from small scale to big scale”.[113]

In the mid-1990s, development of both, residential and commercial rooftop solar as well as utility-scale photovoltaic power stations, began to accelerate again due to supply issues with oil and natural gas, global warming concerns, and the improving economic position of PV relative to other energy technologies.[32] In the early 2000s, the adoption of feed-in tariffs—a policy mechanism, that gives renewables priority on the grid and defines a fixed price for the generated electricity—lead to a high level of investment security and to a soaring number of PV deployments in Europe.

A vast hydropower facility, the Three Gorges Dam stands roughly 181 meters tall and has a length of around 2,335 meters, according to the United States Geological Survey. The facility, which is located on the Yangtze River, has a capacity of 22,500 MW.

Firefighters rarely turn the planning part of their brains off, says Peter Lynch, chief of training at the Vermont Fire Academy. “If you’re driving down the road with a firefighter, more than likely, they’re looking at the next building saying, ‘If we needed to save this building, how would we do it?’” he says. But it’s hard to evaluate a solar-paneled house from the ground. Panels can get in the way of cutting ventilation holes, like they did on Eugene Street. First responders also rely on the ability to turn off the electricity pulsing through a structure—but photovoltaic panels can make their own power. Electrified panels can cause burns, or even blow responders off a roof.

“Solar technology advanced to roughly its present design in 1908 when William J. Bailey of the Carnegie Steel Company invented a collector with an insulated box and copper coils.” By the mid-1950s Bell Telephone Labs had achieved 4% efficiency, and later 11% efficiency, with silicon PV cells. From then on, interest in solar power intensified. During the late 1950s and 1960s, the space program took an active role in the development of photovoltaics. “The cells were perfect sources of electric power for satellites because they were rugged, lightweight and could meet the low power requirements reliably.” Unfortunately, the cells were not practical for use on earth due to the high cost of making them efficient and lightweight, so further research was necessary.

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Although the precise future effects of such anthropogenic CO2 emissions are still somewhat uncertain, the emission levels can certainly be viewed rigorously within a historical perspective. The data from the Vostok ice core indicate that the atmospheric CO2 concentration has been between 210 and 300 ppm for the past 420,000 yr (8), and more recent studies of Dome Concordia ice cores have extended this time period to 650,000 yr (9). Over this same time period, the atmospheric CO2 concentration has been highly correlated with, but is not necessarily the cause of, temperature swings that have repeatedly caused ice ages on the planet. The CO2 concentrations in the past 50 yr have been rising because of anthropogenic CO2 emissions from fossil fuel consumption, and they are now in excess of 380 ppm. Without intervention, even the Table 1 scenario produces, within the 21st century, atmospheric CO2 concentrations that are more than double the preanthropogenic values (4, 6). The exact levels vary depending on the assumed composition of energy sources, the efficiency of energy production and consumption, the global economy, and different intervention scenarios to control CO2 levels. Modestly stringent interventions are based on stabilizing atmospheric CO2 in the 550- to 650-ppm range, with substantially higher values projected (>750 ppm) if the Table 1 scenario is followed. Climate models predict a variety of different global responses to levels of CO2 at or in excess of 550 ppm in the atmosphere. In some models, moderate changes are predicted, whereas in others, relatively serious sea level rises, changes in the hydrological cycle, and other effects are predicted (10). Tipping points involving positive feedback, such as the accelerated loss of permafrost, which could release further CO2 which then could accelerate still further permafrost loss, are of substantive concern. What can solar panels said with certainty is that the atmospheric CO2 concentrations are being increased and without severe intervention will continue to increase, because of anthropogenic sources, to levels that have not been present on the planet in at least the past 650,000 yr and probably in the past 20 million yr.

The Sun may be used to heat water instead of electricity or gas. There are two basic types of active solar heating systems based on the type of fluid — either liquid or air — that is heated in the solar energy collectors. (The collector is the device in which a fluid is heated by the Sun.)

Feb. 8, 2018 — Researchers propose three separate ways to avoid blackouts if the world transitions all its energy to electricity or direct heat and provides the energy with 100 percent wind, water and sunlight. The … read more

In another farming town, in Ivory Coast, I talked to a man named Abou Traoré, who put his television out in a courtyard most nights, so that neighbors could come by to watch. He said that they tuned in for soccer matches—the village tilts Liverpool, but has a large pocket of Manchester United supporters. What else did he watch? Traoré considered. “I like the National Geographic channel,” he replied—that is, the broadcast arm of the institution that became famous showing Westerners pictures of remote parts of Africa.

^ “Solar Photovoltaics competing in the energy sector – On the road to competitiveness” (PDF). EPIA. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 February 2013. Retrieved August 2012. Check date values in: |access-date= (help)

Fly over the Carrizo Plain in California’s Central Valley near San Luis Obispo and you’ll see that what was once barren land is now a sprawling solar farm, with panels covering more than seven square miles — one of the world’s largest clean-energy projects. When the sun shines over the Topaz Solar Farm, the shimmering panels produce enough electricity to power all of the residential homes in a city the size of Long Beach, population 475,000.

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This is a widely held article of faith, but EEI (of all places!) puts it to rest. (In this and all quotes that follow, “DER” means distributed energy resources, which for the most part means solar PV.)

But CAISO concedes that curtailments and “negative pricing” is likely to happen even more often in the future as solar power production continues to grow, unless action is taken to better manage the excess electricity.

However, it has been found that high emissions are associated only with shallow reservoirs in warm (tropical) locales, and recent innovations in hydropower turbine technology are enabling efficient development of low-impact run-of-the-river hydroelectricity projects.[13] Generally speaking, hydroelectric plants produce much lower life-cycle emissions than other types of generation. Hydroelectric power, which underwent extensive development during growth of electrification in the 19th and 20th centuries, is experiencing resurgence of development in the 21st century. The areas of greatest hydroelectric growth are the booming economies of Asia. China is the development leader; however, other Asian nations are installing hydropower at a rapid pace. This growth is driven by much increased energy costs—especially for imported energy—and widespread desires for more domestically produced, clean, renewable, and economical generation.

The content produced by this site is for entertainment purposes only. Opinions and comments published on this site may not be sanctioned by, and do not necessarily represent the views of Sustainable Enterprises Media, Inc., its owners, sponsors, affiliates, or subsidiaries.

Since 2002, both Gov. Brown and his Republican predecessor, Arnold Schwarzenegger, have continually sought to push the clean-energy standards forward. “It shows the importance of bold goals,” Brown declared. “When you put a marker way out there and say, ‘We’re going to go achieve that, we’re going to write this down as a matter of policy and then go do it,’ you can accomplish an enormous amount.” And now that California is on pace to hit 50 percent renewable by 2020, the state could soon set an even loftier goal: 80 percent by 2050, according to Brown.

In some countries such as the Netherlands, electricity companies guarantee to buy an equal amount of ‘green power’ as is being used by their green power customers. The Dutch government exempts green power from pollution taxes, which means green power is hardly any more expensive than other power.

The International Organization for Standardization has established several standards relating to solar energy equipment. For example, ISO 9050 relates to glass in building while ISO 10217 relates to the materials used in solar water heaters.

Zedtwitz, P.V.; et. al. (2006). “Hydrogen production via the solar thermal decarbonization of fossil fuels”. Solar Energy. 80 (10): 1333–7. Bibcode:2006SoEn…80.1333Z. doi:10.1016/j.solener.2005.06.007.

Micro hydro systems convert the flow of water into electrical energy. A turbine can be fully immersed in water. The flowing water rotates the turbine’s blades. The amount of energy created depends on the amount of water flowing on the turbine as well as the size of the turbine.

New to solar?. This Solar Starter Kit is the perfect kit for someone who wants to begin utilizing solar energy for their off-grid adventures. HQST 100 Watts 12 Volts Polycrystalline Solar Panel, 10 amp PWM Charge Controller, a pair of 20 ft. MC4 Solar Cable (to connect the solar panel and charge controller), and a set of Mounting Z-brackets are all included in this specialized kit.

PV cells and modules will produce the largest amount of electricity when they are directly facing the sun. PV modules and arrays can use tracking systems that move the modules to constantly face the sun, but these systems are expensive. Most PV systems have modules in a fixed position with the modules facing directly south (in the northern hemisphere—directly north in the southern hemisphere) and at an angle that optimizes the physical and economic performance of the system.

Helgesen, who is thirty-eight years old and lanky, with hair that he regularly brushes out of his eyes, grew up in Silver Bay, Minnesota, a small town on the shore of Lake Superior. At fourteen, he came up with the idea of leasing the municipal mini-golf course for a summer, and tripled revenues by offering season passes and putting on special promotions for visiting hockey teams. As a sophomore at Notre Dame, in 1999, he set up a Web site that posted the college’s freshman register online, so that, as he put it, “you’d actually know who that cute girl you saw in anthro class was.” Helgesen started similar sites at other colleges, but, he told me, “I wasn’t as good a programmer as Zuckerberg. Even if I’d gotten it completely right, it would have been more Friendster than Facebook.” His first major company, Better World Books, founded in 2002, took the model of charity used-book drives and moved it online. It’s now one of the biggest sellers of used books on Amazon, and has helped raise twenty-five million dollars for literacy organizations, including Books for Africa.

Solar hot water systems use sunlight to heat water. In low geographical latitudes (below 40 degrees) from 60 to 70% of the domestic hot water use with temperatures up to 60 °C can be provided by solar heating systems.[23] The most common types of solar water heaters are evacuated tube collectors (44%) and glazed flat plate collectors (34%) generally used for domestic hot water; and unglazed plastic collectors (21%) used mainly to heat swimming pools.[24]

Solar power systems are not practical for locations that get lots of shade throughout the day. That said, with the advent of micro inverters and grid-tie inverters that have DC optimizers connected to each individual solar panel, some locations with a little bit of shading can still be an option.

Batteries are devices that convert chemical energy into electrical energy. Batteries are classified according to their application and the way they are constructed. The main applications are in cars, boats and deep-cycle.

The Ivanpah Solar Power Facility is a 392 megawatt (MW) solar power facility which is located in south-eastern California.[54] The facility formally opened on February 13, 2014.[55] The Solana Generating Station is a 280 MW solar power plant which is near Gila Bend, Arizona, about 70 miles (110 km) southwest of Phoenix. The 250MW Mojave Solar Project is located near Barstow, California. The Crescent Dunes Solar Energy Project is a 110 megawatt (MW) solar thermal power project near Tonopah, about 190 miles (310 km) northwest of Las Vegas.[56]

Millions of houses and buildings around the world have PV systems on their roofs. Many multi-megawatt PV power plants have also been built. Covering 4% of the world’s desert areas with photovoltaics could supply the equivalent of all of the world’s daily electricity use.

Producing electricity from solar energy was the second discovery. In 1839 a French physicist named Edmund Becquerel realized that the sun’s energy could produce a “photovoltaic effect” (photo = light, voltaic = electrical potential). In the 1880s, selenium photovoltaic (PV) cells were developed that could convert light into electricity with 1-2% efficiency (“the efficiency of a solar cell is the percentage of available sunlight converted by the photovoltaic cell into electricity”), but how the conversion happened was not understood. Photovoltaic power therefore “remained a curiosity for many years, since it was very inefficient at turning sunlight into electricity.” It was not until Albert Einstein proposed an explanation for the “photoelectric effect” in the early 1900s, for which he won a Nobel Prize, that people began to understand the related photovoltaic effect.

A parabolic trough consists of a linear parabolic reflector that concentrates light onto a receiver positioned along the reflector’s focal line. The receiver is a tube positioned along the focal points of the linear parabolic mirror and is filled with a working fluid. The reflector is made to follow the sun during daylight hours by tracking along a single axis. Parabolic trough systems provide the best land-use factor of any solar technology.[12] The SEGS plants in California and Acciona’s Nevada Solar One near Boulder City, Nevada are representatives of this technology.[13][14]

Along with the cushion, her report found, a combination of improved energy efficiency, local solar production, storage and other planning strategies would be more than sufficient to handle the area’s power needs even as the population grew.

Green Energy Corp’s GreenBus® software interoperability platform enables the adoption of evolving Smart Grid technologies and integration with legacy power and communications infrastructures. Microgrid developers can now design and implement an architecture that supports advanced technology adoption over time, while realizing the business benefits incrementally.

When we talk about green https://www.youtube.com/edit?o=U&video_id=IlyS2Uetf04 we mean electricity and gas made from renewable sources: green electricity made from the wind, the sun and the sea, and green gas made from organic material and, soon, grass.

Airflows can be used to run wind turbines. Modern utility-scale wind turbines range from around 600 kW to 5 MW of rated power, although turbines with rated output of 1.5–3 MW have become the most common for commercial use. The largest generator capacity of a single installed onshore wind turbine reached 7.5 MW in 2015. The power available from the wind is a function of the cube of the wind speed, so as wind speed increases, power output increases up to the maximum output for the particular turbine.[41] Areas where winds are stronger and more constant, such as offshore and high altitude sites, are preferred locations for wind farms. Typically full load hours of wind turbines vary between 16 and 57 percent annually, but might be higher in particularly favorable offshore sites.[42]

Wind energy—Wind turbines use blades to collect the wind’s kinetic energy. Wind flows over the blades creating lift, which causes the blades to turn. The blades are connected to a drive shaft that turns an electric generator, which produces electricity.

The contribution from these two categories over the last thirteen years of biomass electric power to the renewable power generation and to the total US power generation is shown below along with the yearly profile of the electric power generation for 2016. This shows the typical variations over the months of the year due to fuel availability and needs.

In 2010, 15.9 GW of solar PV system installations were completed, with solar PV pricing survey and market research company PVinsights reporting growth of 117.8% in solar PV installation on a year-on-year basis.

Each module is rated by its DC output power under standard test conditions (STC), and typically ranges from 100 to 365 Watts (W). The efficiency of a module determines the area of a module given the same rated output – an 8% efficient 230 W module will have twice the area of a 16% efficient 230 W module. There are a few commercially available solar modules that exceed efficiency of 22%[1] and reportedly also exceeding 24%.[2][3]

Auto Restart The Nomad 28 Plus features an auto restart that’s smarter than anything else on the market. With the ability to track power flow history, the Nomad 28 Plus knows the difference between a device that has reached a fully charged state and one that disconnects due to environmental causes, i.e. lack of sunlight, shadow, etc. When the latter is detected, the Nomad 28 Plus will automatically reconnect the charging device, no extra work on your part is needed.

^ Tadesse I.; Isoaho S. A.; Green F. B.; Puhakka J. A. (2003). “Removal of organics and nutrients from tannery effluent by advanced integrated Wastewater Pond Systems technology”. Water Sci. Technol. 48 (2): 307–14. PMID 14510225.

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Rebate In order to encourage the use of solar power, many utilities and local non-profit agencies offer rebates after the installation of a solar electric system. Usually the rebates are simply based on the number of Watts of solar panels installed. Please consult your local Utility Company for details.

Solar Panels Solar panels (also referred to as Solar Modules) are panels made up of solar cells connected in series to produce DC electricity. We sell a wide range of solar panels, including smaller 12V nominal panels that have 36 cells in series to produce around 17V at Standard Test Conditions (STC) under load; larger 60 cell solar panels that produce 20 volts nominal at STC; and even larger 72 cell solar panels that produce 24 volts nominal at STC.

But on nice days with steady, abundant wind, he might shut down all his fast-response backup plants, even those normally reserved for responding to changes in demand. Under such circumstances, Jones can use the wind farms themselves to ensure that power supply matches demand: the output of a wind turbine can be changed almost instantly by angling the blades so they capture more or less wind. Computers at Xcel’s building in Denver tell wind farms how much power to produce, and automated controls coördinate hundreds of turbines, changing output minute by minute if needed.

First-generation technologies emerged from the industrial revolution at the end of the 19th century and include hydropower, biomass combustion and geothermal power and heat. Some of these technologies are still in widespread use.

Although renewable facilities require upfront investments to build, they can then operate at very low cost (for most clean energy technologies, the “fuel” is free). As a result, renewable energy prices can be very stable over time.

Each module is rated by its DC output power under standard test conditions (STC), and typically ranges from 100 to 365 Watts (W). The efficiency of a module determines the area of a module given the same rated output – an 8% efficient 230 W module will have twice the area of a 16% efficient 230 W module. There are a few commercially available solar modules that exceed efficiency of 22%[1] and reportedly also exceeding 24%.[2][3]

MC4 Splitter (connects two panels to the MC4 Power Wire. MC4 Short Power Wire. GENSSI 200W KIT Polycrystalline Photovoltaic PV Solar Panel Module. GENSSI 30 Amp PWM Solar Charge Controller. 2x 100 Watts – 12 Volts Polycrystalline Solar Panel. ).

Photovoltaic systems use no fuel, and modules typically last 25 to 40 years. Thus, capital costs make up most of the cost of solar power. Operations and maintenance costs for new utility-scale solar plants in the US are estimated to be 9 percent of the cost of photovoltaic electricity, and 17 percent of the cost of solar thermal electricity.[51] Governments have created various financial incentives to encourage the use of solar power, such as feed-in tariff programs. Also, Renewable portfolio standards impose a government mandate that utilities generate or acquire a certain percentage of renewable power regardless of increased energy procurement costs. In most states, RPS goals can be achieved by any combination of solar, wind, biomass, landfill gas, ocean, geothermal, municipal solid waste, hydroelectric, hydrogen, or fuel cell technologies.[52]

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Solar Energy International (SEI), Colorado Solar Energy Industries Association (COSEIA), and GRID Alternatives are teaming up again to bring you the Colorado Solar Career Expo powered by Solar Ready Colorado. The Colorado Solar Career Expo will take place on March 14 from 1:30 to 4 p.m. at the Hyatt Regency Aurora Conference Center in Aurora, […]

On a much larger scale, solar-thermal power plants employ various techniques to concentrate the sun’s energy as a heat source. The heat is then used to boil water to drive a steam turbine that generates electricity in much the same fashion as coal and nuclear power plants, supplying electricity for thousands of people.

Utility investors are accustomed to large, long-term, reliable investments with a 30-year cost recovery — fossil fuel plants, basically. The cost of those investments, along with investments in grid maintenance and reliability, are spread by utilities across all ratepayers in a service area. What happens if a bunch of those ratepayers start reducing their demand or opting out of the grid entirely? Well, the same investments must now be spread over a smaller group of ratepayers. In other words: higher rates for those who haven’t switched to solar.

The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 included more than $70 billion in direct spending and tax credits for clean energy and associated transportation programs. This policy-stimulus combination represents the largest federal commitment in United States history for renewable energy, advanced transportation, and energy conservation initiatives. These new initiatives were expected to encourage many more utilities to strengthen their clean energy programs.[92] While the Department of Energy has come under criticism for providing loan guarantees to Solyndra,[93] its SunShot initiative has funded successful companies such as EnergySage[94] and Zep Solar.[95]

Helgesen made his first trip to Tanzania in 2006, to visit recipients of Better World’s funding and to go on safari. “I was staying at a fancy lodge near Kilimanjaro, and I remember thinking, How do things really work around here?” Helgesen said. He paid a local man to take him to the nearest village. “I was peppering him with questions: ‘Do young people go to the city?’ ‘How much does coffee sell for?’ ” The experience, he said, “flipped my mind-set from ‘People in Africa are poor and they need our help and our donated books’ to ‘This is what an emerging economy looks like. This is young people, this is entrepreneurialism, this is where growth will be.’ ” During a second trip to Africa, he went scuba diving in Lake Malawi (“to see the cichlid fish, which keep their babies in their mouths”), and was invited to dinner by his scuba instructor. “It was a decent-sized town, maybe twenty thousand people, but absolutely no electricity,” Helgesen said. “It was all narrow alleys—they were bustling, but they were pitch-black.”

The Earth receives 174 petawatts (PW) of incoming solar radiation (insolation) at the upper atmosphere.[5] Approximately 30% is reflected back to space while the rest is absorbed by clouds, oceans and land masses. The spectrum of solar light at the Earth’s surface is mostly spread across the visible and near-infrared ranges with a small part in the near-ultraviolet.[6] Most of the world’s population live in areas with insolation levels of 150–300 watts/m², or 3.5–7.0 kWh/m² per day.[citation needed]

If you use a prepayment meter, you can still compare energy prices and https://www.youtube.com/edit?o=U&video_id=5jlnD0xrCSs switch to another greener prepayment deal. However, swapping to a fixed-rate deal could save you money. Find out how to switch energy suppliers if you have a payment meter.

The IEA 2014 World Energy Outlook projects a growth of renewable energy supply from 1,700 gigawatts in 2014 to 4,550 gigawatts in 2040. Fossil fuels received about $550 billion in subsidies in 2013, compared to $120 billion for all renewable energies.[40]

Sunlight has influenced building design since the beginning of architectural history.[68] Advanced solar architecture and urban planning methods were first employed by the Greeks and Chinese, who oriented their buildings toward the south to provide light and warmth.[69]

PV cells are electrically connected in a packaged, weather-tight PV module or panel. PV modules vary in size and in the amount of electricity they can produce. PV module electricity generating capacity increases with the number of cells in the module or in the surface area of the module. PV modules can be connected in groups to form a PV array. A PV array can be composed of two or hundreds of PV modules. The number of PV modules connected in a PV array determines the total amount of electricity that the array can generate.

A 14-Watt panel reengineered to be lighter and smarter, the Nomad 14 Plus Solar Panel has the innovative technology to charge USB devices directly from the sun. Detachable kickstand for modularity and power-flow indicator ensure the best solar charging experience.

Performance and economic analysis of a floricultural greenhouse with distributed fan-pad evaporative cooling coupled with solar desiccationPerformance and economic analysis of a floricultural greenhouse with distributed fan-pad evaporative cooling coupled with solar desiccation

A 2010 survey conducted by Applied Materials shows that two-thirds of Americans believe solar technology should play a greater role in meeting the country’s energy needs. In addition, “three-quarters of Americans feel that increasing renewable energy and decreasing U.S. dependence on foreign oil are the country’s top energy priorities”. According to the survey, “67 percent of Americans would be willing to pay more for their monthly utility bill if their utility company increased its use of renewable energy”.[86]

Most parts of a solar module can be recycled including up to 95% of certain semiconductor materials or the glass as well as large amounts of ferrous and non-ferrous metals.[25] Some private companies and non-profit organizations are currently engaged in take-back and recycling operations for end-of-life modules.[26]

Fossouo nodded. “What if I gave you a way to pay for it?” he asked. “So the dollar wouldn’t even come from your pocket? If you get a system, people will pay you to charge their phones. Or, if you had a TV, you could charge people to come watch the football games.”

The US company on Thursday announced a deal with Singaporean solar firm Sunseap to purchase all the power generated by a planned rooftop solar project, which will be the largest of its kind in the city-state.

Switching to green power means that electricity providers make it possible for customers to purchase green power from their power company if they pay extra for it. In theory, what this means is that instead of using normal electricity which comes from many non-renewable sources, the provider of the electricity ensures that the equivalent electricity used in your home is fed to the grid via a renewable source, such as solar arrays or wind turbines. However, in the past there has been instances of fraud involved in such schemes.

 Wind and solar are less prone to large-scale failure because they are distributed and modular. Distributed systems are spread out over a large geographical area, so a severe weather event in one location will not cut off power to an entire region. Modular systems are composed of numerous individual wind turbines or solar arrays. Even if some of the equipment in the system is damaged, the rest can typically continue to operate.

Markets for second-generation technologies are strong and growing, but only in a few countries. The challenge is to broaden the market base for continued growth worldwide. Strategic deployment in one country not only reduces technology costs for users there, but also for those in other countries, contributing to overall cost reductions and performance improvement.

Biomass and geothermal power plants, like coal- and natural gas-fired power plants, may require water for cooling. Hydroelectric power plants can disrupt river ecosystems both upstream and downstream from the dam. However, NREL’s 80-percent-by-2050 renewable energy study, which included biomass and geothermal, found that total water consumption and withdrawal would decrease significantly in a future with high renewables [7].

When water is used to generate electricity, it is called hydroelectric power, or hydropower. Most hydropower plants use a dam on a river to create a reservoir to store water. As water is released from the reservoir, it flows through a turbine and causes it to spin. This activates a generator that produces electricity.

Concentrating solar power plants with wet-cooling systems, on the other hand, have the highest water-consumption intensities of any conventional type of electric power plant; only fossil-fuel plants with carbon-capture and storage may have higher water intensities.[115] A 2013 study comparing various sources of electricity found that the median water consumption during operations of concentrating solar power plants with wet cooling was 810 ga/MWhr for power tower plants and 890 gal/MWhr for trough plants. This was higher than the operational water consumption (with cooling towers) for nuclear (720 gal/MWhr), coal (530 gal/MWhr), or natural gas (210).[114] A 2011 study by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory came to similar conclusions: for power plants with cooling towers, water consumption during operations was 865 gal/MWhr for CSP trough, 786 gal/MWhr for CSP tower, 687 gal/MWhr for coal, 672 gal/MWhr for nuclear, and 198 gal/MWhr for natural gas.[116] The Solar Energy Industries Association noted that the Nevada Solar One trough CSP plant consumes 850 gal/MWhr.[117] The issue of water consumption is heightened because CSP plants are often located in arid environments where water is scarce.

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Sólo para daros un ejemplo de un inconveniente común asociado con los métodos de producción de energía alternativa , se tendrá en cuenta los discos magnéticos que se utilizan generalmente en los motores para la producción de electricidad alternativa (como los utilizados en turbinas de viento y agua). Los discos magnéticos, en su proceso de producción, tienen fuertes efectos negativos en el medio ambiente. Mientras que la principal fuente de magnetismo conocido por los seres humanos era la magnetita, imanes modernas que se requieren para funcionar con la máxima eficiencia de los motores actuales, generalmente están hechos de neodimio – una combinación de tierras raras que pueden contener una fuerte carga constante.

En un otro artículo os explicamos de forma detallada los diferentes tipos de paneles solares que existen. No os lo perdáis si queréis conocer los distintos tipos de paneles que podemos encontrar actualmente en el mercado.

Las placas solares también son conocidas como paneles solares, módulos solares o paneles fotovoltaicos están compuestos por células solares capaces de producir electricidad a partir de la radiación solar que inciden sobre ellas.

En el área de energía solar, se instala en Chile el año 2015 el Centro de Tecnologías para Energía Solar: FCR-CSET (Fraunhofer Chile Research – Center for https://www.youtube.com/edit?o=U&video_id=ncESuWKimbE Energy Research), con base en la experiencia tecnológica del Centro Fraunhofer ISE de Alemania, principal centro de investigación y desarrollo aplicado en este campo en Europa, y uno de los más importantes a nivel mundial. Participan como co-ejecutores la Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile y como empresas asociadas Soitec y Solar Springs. El centro implementará líneas de investigación para el desarrollo de la industria solar y sus aplicaciones, las que consideran investigación científica, innovación, desarrollo tecnológico de excelencia y adaptación de las tecnologías existentes a las particulares condiciones existentes en nuestro país, apuntando a lograr implementación a gran escala de la energía solar en los sectores industriales, comerciales y residenciales en Chile. El desarrollo de este centro de excelencia internacional tiene un costo total de 404.298 UTM, de las cuales 39,9% será aportado por el Ministerio de Energía, a través de CORFO en un plazo de  8 años.

Alexandre Edmon Becquerel, en 1839 mientras experimentaba con una pila electrolítica que se encontraba sumergida en una sustancia de las mismas propiedades, observo luego que, al exponerla a la luz, esta generaba más electricidad. Descubrió así el “efecto fotovoltaico”, pero fue Charles Fritts en 1893 (54 años después), quien invento la primera célula solar. La misma estaba conformada de láminas de revestimiento de selenio y una fina capa de oro, y su invento le valió ser reconocido como la primera persona que convirtió energía solar en electricidad.

Fuentes:  Agencia Internacional de la Energía, Revista National Geographic en su número especial del Cambio Climático (noviembre de 2015), 10 argumentos a favor de las energías renovables – Sostenibilidad para todos

La arquitectura bioclimática es la aplicación de este principio al diseño de edificaciones. La energía no se aprovecha por medio de captadores industrializados, sino que son los propios elementos constructivos los que absorben la energía de día y la redistribuyen por la noche.

Por otra parte, entre las pocas desventajas que se pueden citar es que los paneles necesitan de una ubicación y posición determinada para funcionar a pleno rendimiento y no son tan efectivos en zonas donde haya menos sol.

Dramatic reductions in the cost of renewable energy and rapid innovations in smart grids, storage, and connectivity are driving large scale clean energy investments, especially in developing countries. The Paris Agreement on climate change is providing further impetus to scale up renewable energy, as countries are implementing policies to deliver on commitments. But despite these efforts, challenges still remain that could hold back investment and the transition to a low carbon future.

El caso de las autocaravanas es más sencillo. Estamos de acuerdo en que vas a necesitar mucha menos electricidad. Quizás para un par de bombillas y una televisión. Para cocinar imagino que utilizarás gas, y puedes tener una nevera solar o de gas butano.

En este programa, también considerado como movimiento nacional, existen oportunidades para todo tipo de profesionales. Desde personas sin educación universitaria, como puede ser la la fabricación de paneles solares o de tuberías, hasta gente con estudios superiores de maestría o doctorado, como por ejemplo la investigación en ingeniería geotérmica.

En 2016, en España el 38,9% de la energía generada procedió de fuentes renovables, la eólica encabeza la producción con 18,4%, seguida de la hidráulica con un 13,8% y por detrás estuvieron la energía solar fotovoltaica y térmica con un 3,1% y 2% respectivamente, el 1,6% restante corresponde al resto de energías renovables.

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Part of the Senftenberg Solarpark, a solar photovoltaic power plant located on former open-pit mining areas close to the city of Senftenberg, in Eastern Germany. The 78 MW Phase 1 of the plant was completed within three months.

Geothermal power is cost effective, reliable, sustainable, and environmentally friendly,[128] but has historically been limited to areas near tectonic plate boundaries. Recent technological advances have expanded the range and size of viable resources, especially for applications such as home heating, opening a potential for widespread exploitation. Geothermal wells release greenhouse gases trapped deep within the earth, but these emissions are much lower per energy unit than those of fossil fuels. As a result, geothermal power has the potential to help mitigate global warming if widely deployed in place of fossil fuels.

We have proved the commercial profit of sun power in the tropics and have more particularly proved that after our stores of oil and coal are exhausted the human race can receive unlimited power from the rays of the sun.

We still use solar power in the same two forms today, thermal and photovoltaic. The first concentrates sunlight, converts it into heat, and applies it to a steam generator or engine to be converted into electricity in order “to warm buildings, heat water, generate electricity, dry crops or destroy dangerous waste.” Electricity is generated when the heated fluid drives turbines or other machinery. The second form of solar power produces electricity directly without moving parts. Today’s photovoltaic system is composed of cells made of silicon, the second most abundant element in the earth’s crust. “Power is produced when sunlight strikes the semiconductor material and creates an electric current.” The smallest unit of the system is a cell. Cells wired together form a module, and modules wired together form a panel. A group of panels is called an array, and several arrays form an array field.

Auto Restart The Nomad 28 Plus features an auto restart that’s smarter than anything else on the market. With the ability to track power flow history, the Nomad 28 Plus knows the difference between a device that has reached a fully charged state and one that disconnects due to environmental causes, i.e. lack of sunlight, shadow, etc. When the latter is detected, the Nomad 28 Plus will automatically reconnect the charging device, no extra work on your part is needed.

^ B.N. Divakara, H.D. Upadhyaya, S.P. Wani, C.L. Laxmipathi Gowda; Upadhyaya; Wani; Gowda (2010). “Biology and genetic improvement of Jatropha curcas L.: A review”. Applied Energy. 87 (3): 732–742. doi:10.1016/j.apenergy.2009.07.013.

An electric aircraft is an aircraft that runs on electric motors rather than internal combustion engines, with electricity coming from fuel cells, solar cells, ultracapacitors, power beaming,[183] or batteries.

Since the flow of electrical current is going in one direction, like a battery, the electricity generated is called direct current (DC). Sunlight conversion rates are typically in the 5 to 18 percent range, with some laboratory experiments reaching efficiencies as high as 30 percent. Future possibilities include the development of multi-junction solar cells that are capable of harnessing a wider bandwidth of useable light. We are still considered to be in the “early” stages of solar cell technology.

In cases of self consumption of the solar energy, the payback time is calculated based on how much electricity is not purchased from the grid. For example, in Germany, with electricity prices of 0.25 €/kWh and insolation of 900 kWh/kW, one kWp will save €225 per year, and with an installation cost of 1700 €/KWp the system cost will be returned in less than seven years.[71] However, in many cases, the patterns of generation and consumption do not coincide, and some or all of the energy is fed back into the grid. The electricity is sold, and at other times when energy is taken from the grid, electricity is bought. The relative costs and prices obtained affect the economics. In many markets, the price paid for sold PV electricity is significantly lower than the price of bought electricity, which incentivizes self consumption.[72] Moreover, separate self consumption incentives have been used in e.g. Germany and Italy.[72] Grid interaction regulation has also included limitations of grid feed-in in some regions in Germany with high amounts of installed PV capacity.[72][73] By increasing self consumption, the grid feed-in can be limited without curtailment, which wastes electricity.[74]

In Vermont, where solar panel installation has skyrocketed, Lynch has trained 744 firefighters since the summer of 2016 to respond to photovoltaic panels. The four hour program walks them through numerous hypothetical scenarios—from ventilation issues to safety labeling—from the comfort of a classroom. “It really [teaches] the firefighter of how to respect the solar energy systems themselves,” he says. And, of course, how to deal with them in an emergency.

Efficiency was another big takeaway from the report. While the U.S. economy has continued a healthy expansion, total U.S. energy consumption actually declined in 2017 by 0.2%, illustrating the economy’s ability to do more while consuming less power.

Solar Panels Solar panels (also referred to as Solar Modules) are panels made up of solar cells connected in series to produce DC electricity. We sell a wide range of solar panels, including smaller 12V nominal panels that have 36 cells in series to produce around 17V at Standard Test Conditions (STC) under load; larger 60 cell solar panels that produce 20 volts nominal at STC; and even larger 72 cell solar panels that produce 24 volts nominal at STC.

^ M.R. Schmer, K.P. Vogel, R.B. Mitchell, R.K. Perrin; Vogel; Mitchell; Perrin (2008). “Net energy of cellulosic ethanol from switchgrass”. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 105 (2): 464–469. Bibcode:2008PNAS..105..464S. doi:10.1073/pnas.0704767105. PMC 2206559 . PMID 18180449.

The sprawling Ivanpah Solar Electric Generating System, owned by NRG Energy and BrightSource Energy, occupies 5.5 square miles in the Mojave Desert. The plant can supply electricity to 180,000 Pacific Gas & Electric and Southern California Edison customers. (Mark Boster/Los Angeles Times)

The Sun may be used to heat water instead of electricity or gas. There are two basic types of active solar heating systems based on the type of fluid — either liquid or air — that is heated in the solar energy collectors. (The collector is the device in which a fluid is heated by the Sun.)

Nearly all the gasoline sold in the United States today is mixed with 10% ethanol,[126] and motor vehicle manufacturers already produce vehicles designed to run on much higher ethanol blends. Ford, Daimler AG, and GM are among the automobile companies that sell “flexible-fuel” cars, trucks, and minivans that can use gasoline and ethanol blends ranging from pure gasoline up to 85% ethanol. By mid-2006, there were approximately 6 million ethanol compatible vehicles on U.S. roads.[127]

Burlington, Vermont, was the only US city reporting to CDP that sourced all of its power from renewable sources after having fully transitioned in 2015. Research from the Sierra Club states there are five such cities in the US in total.

Pumped-storage hydroelectricity stores energy in the form of water pumped when energy is available from a lower elevation reservoir to a higher elevation one. The energy is recovered when demand is high by releasing the water, with the pump becoming a hydroelectric power generator.[106]

The EPA named the top 20 partners in its Green Power Partnership that are generating their own renewable energy on-site. Combined, they generate more than 736 million kilowatt-hours of renewable energy on-site each year, enough to power more than 61,000 average U.S. homes.[104]

Scientists from Spectrolab, a subsidiary of Boeing, have reported development of multi-junction solar cells with an efficiency of more than 40%, a new world record for solar photovoltaic cells.[6] The Spectrolab scientists also predict that concentrator solar cells could achieve efficiencies of more than 45% or even 50% in the future, with theoretical efficiencies being about 58% in cells with more than three junctions.

Helgesen decided to “start with the customer, and the price point they could pay, and build the business behind that.” Matt Schiller, the thirty-two-year-old vice-president of business operations, said that, in some ways, it is an easy sell. “If we talk to a hundred customers, not one says, ‘I’d rather have kerosene,’ ” he told me. “Not one says, ‘I’d like the warm glow of the kerosene lights.’ In fact, when we were designing the L.E.D.s, we focus-grouped lights. And the engineers assumed they’d want a warmer light, because that’s what they were used to. But, no, they picked the bluest, hardest light you can imagine. That’s modernity. That’s clean.”

Did you know… We have over 95 college courses that prepare you to earn credit by exam that is accepted by over 2,000 colleges and universities. You can test out of the first two years of college and save thousands off your degree. Anyone can earn credit-by-exam regardless of age or education level.

Green Energy Corp’s GreenBus® software interoperability platform enables the adoption of evolving Smart Grid technologies and integration with legacy power and communications infrastructures. Microgrid developers can now design and implement an architecture that supports advanced technology adoption over time, while realizing the business benefits incrementally.

Virtually all low-cost inverters are “Modified Sine Wave”. They are usually about 70% efficient, so expect some significant power losses if you are using a Modified Sine Wave Inverter in your system. A Sine Wave Inverter is designed to replicate and even improve the quality of electricity supplied by utility companies. To operate higher-end electronic equipment, a sine wave inverter is recommended.

Within emerging economies, Brazil comes second to China in terms of clean energy investments. Supported by strong energy policies, Brazil has one of the world’s highest biomass and small-hydro power capacities and is poised for significant growth in wind energy investment. The cumulative investment potential in Brazil from 2010 to 2020 is projected as $67 billion.[148]

Technology improvements and policies to promote research, development, and installation of solar have resulted in tremendous drops in the cost of solar power over the past several years. Even without taking important health and safety costs (note that a Harvard study concluded in 2011 that the health costs of coal are $500 billion a year in the U.S.), environmental costs, energy security costs, and other social costs into account, solar is already cost-competitive with new electricity from conventional energy options like coal and nuclear energy (if you take into account how long it would take coal or nuclear plants to get built) — see the graphs below.

The sun has a unique role in sustainable energy production, in that it is the undisputed champion of energy; the resource base presented by terrestrial insolation far exceeds that of all other renewable energy sources combined. The solar energy resource additionally far exceeds what can possibly be envisioned as a level of human consumption necessary to support even the most technologically advanced society. However, to be a material contribution to primary energy supply, solar energy must be captured, converted, and stored to overcome the diurnal cycle and the intermittency of the terrestrial solar resource. Arguably the most attractive method for this energy conversion and storage is in the form of chemical bonds, by production of cheap solar fuels. Significant advances in basic science, however, are needed for this technology to attain its full potential. Chemistry will assume a special role in this endeavor, because new materials must be created for solar capture and conversion, and because new catalysts are needed for the desired chemical bond https://www.youtube.com/edit?o=U&video_id=kgsihOsLfoE Here we present a blueprint for a reaction chemistry, when interfaced to a charge-separation structure, that permits artificial photosynthesis to be envisioned. The progress of scientists in chemistry, biology, engineering, materials science, and physics in addressing the basic science challenges involved with realizing this artificial photosynthesis will be critical to enable humans to use the sun sustainably as their primary energy source.

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Compared with fossil fuel technologies, which are typically mechanized and capital intensive, the renewable energy industry is more labor intensive. Solar panels need humans to install them; wind farms need technicians for maintenance.

Each module is rated by its DC output power under standard test conditions (STC), and typically ranges from 100 to 365 Watts (W). The efficiency of a module determines the area of a module given the same rated output – an 8% efficient 230 W module will have twice the area of a 16% efficient 230 W module. There are a few commercially available solar modules that exceed efficiency of 22%[1] and reportedly also exceeding 24%.[2][3]

Renewable energy technology has sometimes been seen as a costly luxury item by critics, and affordable only in the affluent developed world. This erroneous view has persisted for many years, but 2015 was the first year when investment in non-hydro renewables, was higher in developing countries, with $156 billion invested, mainly in China, India, and Brazil.[132]

The New Zealand Parliamentary Commissioner for the Environment found that the solar PV would have little impact on the country’s greenhouse gas emissions. The country already generates 80 percent of its electricity from renewable resources (primarily hydroelectricity and geothermal) and national electricity usage peaks on winter evenings whereas solar generation peaks on summer afternoons, meaning a large uptake of solar PV would end up displacing other renewable generators before fossil-fueled power plants.[107]

Zedtwitz, P.V.; et. al. (2006). “Hydrogen production via the solar thermal decarbonization of fossil fuels”. Solar Energy. 80 (10): 1333–7. Bibcode:2006SoEn…80.1333Z. doi:10.1016/j.solener.2005.06.007.

Jump up ^ Duchane, Dave; Brown, Don (December 2002). “Hot Dry Rock (HDR) Geothermal Energy Research and Development at Fenton Hill, New Mexico” (PDF). Geo-Heat Centre Quarterly Bulletin. 23 (4). Klamath Falls, Oregon: Oregon Institute of Technology. pp. 13–19. ISSN 0276-1084. Retrieved 5 May 2009.

A year later, the National Fire Protection Association and the International Code Council started to incorporate language about photovoltaic panel installation into their fire codes. Modern fire and electric codes require enough space between panels for firefighters to walk and rapid shutdown systems that can quickly de-electrify panels. The latest versions, released this year, also call for clear signage on all photovoltaic panels and wires, so firefighters know what and where everything is.

Watch the video to learn about the differences between grid-tied, grid-tied with battery backup, off-grid, and grid-assisted solar systems. If you still need help choosing, give us a call at 1-800-472-1142.

While renewable energy is plentiful, most of the environmental impact is related to the production of equipment to harness the energy. Even so the energy payback time, that is the amount of time it takes to repay the energy and resources gone into creating something such as a solar panel, is quite short.

While hydropower is the biggest source of renewable energy in the United States, geothermal power is the smallest, accounting for about 0.4 percent of the net electricity produced in the United States in 2015[iv]. Globally, the use of hydroelectricity and other grid-connected renewable energy sources is expected to grow slowly over the next couple of decades, increasing at a rate of 2.5 percent per year until 2040, according to the Energy Information Administration (EIA)[v]. Most of that growth will come from the construction of new hydropower and wind generating facilities. The renewable share of total world energy consumption is expected to rise from 10.6 percent in 2009 to 14.5 percent in 2040[vi].

Inhibition of patchouli oil for anaerobic digestion and enhancement in methane production using reverse membrane bioreactorsInhibition of patchouli oil for anaerobic digestion and enhancement in methane production using reverse membrane bioreactors

^ Jacobson, Mark Z. (2009). “Review of solutions to global warming, air pollution, and energy security”. Energy and Environmental Science. Royal Society of Chemistry. 2 (2): 148–173. doi:10.1039/b809990c. Retrieved 2008-12-21.

But what happened in March shows how the growing supply of solar power could have a much greater impact in the future. The periods of “negative pricing” lasted longer than in the past — often for six hours at a time, and once for eight hours, according to a CAISO report.

First-generation technologies emerged from the industrial revolution at the end of the 19th century and include hydropower, biomass combustion and geothermal power and heat. Some of these technologies are still in widespread use.

As in WS1, WS2 and WS3 cycles are closed by oxygen production, providing a further imperative for the development of reactions of the type described by Schemes 3–5. However, very few catalysts are known to oxidize water near the thermodynamic potential. Again, the most notable system is in biology, specifically involving the oxygen-evolving complex (OEC) of Photosystem II. The OEC comprises a cluster of four Mn centers and a Ca center (52–54), but no functional or structural models of the catalytically active site are yet available (55). At present, the ruthenium dimer [(bpy)2(OH2)RuIIIORuIII(OH2)(bpy)2]4+ (bpy = 2,2′-bipyridine) (56) and its relatives (57–59) represent the only unequivocally established molecular electrocatalysts for generating O2 from H2O. However, at present, this reaction proceeds at a high overpotential and with modest turnover numbers.

An artificial photosynthetic system could be realized by spatially separating solid-state or molecular water reduction and oxidation catalysts and connecting them to a light collection and charge separation system. In one such construct, the spatially separated electron–hole pairs provided by a photovoltaic assembly based on a solid-state junction, on either the macroscale or the nanoscale, are captured by the catalysts, and the energy is stored in the bond rearrangement of water to H2 and O2. Other concepts involve more intimate integration of the charge separation and chemical bond-forming functions, to avoid costs and system constraints associated with electrical contacts, wires, inverters, etc., involved with converting 1-eV photons into 1-eV solar power bonds through electricity as a discrete intermediary. One approach to this type of system is depicted in Fig. 1, in which the tightly integrated system is modeled after natural photosynthesis and serves as a model for the artificial photosynthetic systems that are discussed below.

Currently, flying manned electric aircraft are mostly experimental demonstrators, though many small unmanned aerial vehicles are powered by batteries. Electrically powered model aircraft have been flown since the 1970s, with one report in 1957.[184][185] The first man-carrying electrically powered flights were made in 1973.[186] Between 2015-2016, a manned, solar-powered plane, Solar Impulse 2, completed a circumnavigation of the Earth.[187]

“solar energy facts-how it works renewable energy benefits in developing countries”

Run-of-the-river hydroelectricity plants derive kinetic energy from rivers without the creation of a large reservoir. This style of generation may still produce a large amount of electricity, such as the Chief Joseph Dam on the Columbia river in the United States.

Below is a recent list of 2017/2018 articles that have had the most social media attention. The Plum Print next to each article shows the relative activity in each of these categories of metrics: Captures, Mentions, Social Media and Citations. Go here to learn more about PlumX Metrics.

Some consumers choose green energy tariffs because it encourages suppliers to reduce their reliance on fossil fuels, reduce their carbon footprint and reduce their impact on the environment. However, because all electricity is supplied by the National Grid regardless of how it’s made, there’s no real way to ensure that the energy you pay for is actually green. 

Tell Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Administrator Scott Pruitt that you are outraged that he is putting fossil fuel industry profits ahead of the health and safety of the public by repealing the Clean Power Plan.

Tax Credit Tax credits are one type of incentive to install solar/renewable energy systems that may be available at the local, state and/or federal levels. The Federal Income Tax Credit was extended in December of 2015 for several years and is available for both homes and businesses which install solar power systems. Please consult your tax advisor for more details.

Blackout (Rolling blackout) Brownout Demand response Distributed generation Dynamic demand Electric power distribution Electric power system Electric power transmission Electrical grid High-voltage direct current Load management Mains electricity by country Power line Power station Power storage Pumped hydro Smart grid Substation Super grid Transformer Transmission system operator (TSO) Transmission tower Utility pole

In his joint address to Congress in 2009, Obama stated that: “We know the country that harnesses the power of clean, renewable energy will lead the 21st. century….Thanks to our recovery plan, we will double this nation’s supply of renewable energy in the next three years… It is time for America to lead again”.[12]

BlogRead up on our latest announcements and stories AmbassadorsMeet the people and organizations who inspire us to get out and live the Solar Life StoriesCheck out our En Route series or read up on our latest humanitarian progress with Share The Sun EventsFind us on the road and come say hello AboutLearn what the Solar Life means to us

Renewable energy sources are energy sources that are always being replenished. They can never be depleted. Some examples of renewable energy sources are solar energy, wind energy, hydropower, geothermal energy, and biomass energy. These types of energy sources are different from fossil fuels, such as coal, oil, and natural gas. These are nonrenewable energy sources, which means that if we use them all up, we can never get more during our lifetime.

1 Primus’ STG+® train needs about 6 mmcf/day of natural gas to operate at full capacity. 1 train is perfectly suited for production from a shale gas well or additional Primus trains can be scaled to gather from multiple wells.

Solar photovoltaic (PV) devices, or solar cells, change sunlight directly into electricity. Small PV cells can power calculators, watches, and other small electronic devices. Arrangements of many solar cells in PV panels and arrangements of multiple PV panels in PV arrays can produce electricity for an entire house. Some PV power plants have large arrays that cover many acres to produce electricity for thousands of homes.

In 2004, the German government introduced the first large-scale feed-in tariff system, under the German Renewable Energy Act, which resulted in explosive growth of PV installations in Germany. At the outset the FIT was over 3x the retail price or 8x the industrial price. The principle behind the German system is a 20-year flat rate contract. The value of new contracts is programmed to decrease each year, in order to encourage the industry to pass on lower costs to the end users. The programme has been more successful than expected with over 1GW installed in 2006, and political pressure is mounting to decrease the tariff to lessen the future burden on consumers.

Hydrogen can be found in many organic compounds, as well as water. It’s the most abundant element on the Earth. Because energy is always needed to produce hydrogen, it is not an energy source, but a way to store and transport energy, so it is referred to as an energy carrier.

Japan and China have national programs aimed at commercial scale Space-Based Solar Power (SBSP). The China Academy of Space Technology (CAST) won the 2015 International SunSat Design Competition[permanent dead link] with this video of their Multi-Rotary Joint design. Proponents of SBSP claim that Space-Based Solar Power would be clean, constant, and global, and could scale to meet all planetary energy demand.[52] A recent multi-agency industry proposal (echoing the 2008 Pentagon recommendation) won the SECDEF/SECSTATE/USAID Director D3 (Diplomacy, Development, Defense) Innovation Challenge.[4]

By participating in a green energy program a consumer may be having an effect on the energy sources used and ultimately might be helping to promote and expand the use of green energy. They are also making a statement to policy makers that they are willing to pay a price premium to support renewable energy. Green energy consumers either obligate the utility companies to increase the amount of green energy that they purchase from the pool (so decreasing the amount of non-green energy they purchase), or directly fund the green energy through a green power provider. If insufficient green energy sources are available, the utility must develop new ones or contract with a third party energy supplier to provide green energy, causing more to be built. However, there is no way the consumer can check whether or not the electricity bought is “green” or otherwise.

The solar thermal power industry is growing rapidly with 1.3 GW under construction in 2012 and more planned. Spain is the epicenter of solar thermal power development with 873 MW under construction, and a further 271 MW under development.[110] In the United States, 5,600 MW of solar thermal power projects have been announced.[111] Several power plants have been constructed in the Mojave Desert, Southwestern United States. The Ivanpah Solar Power Facility being the most recent. In developing countries, three World Bank projects for integrated solar thermal/combined-cycle gas-turbine power plants in Egypt, Mexico, and Morocco have been approved.[112]

Renewable energy accounted for 14.94% of the domestically produced electricity in 2016 in the United States.[20] This proportion has grown from just 7.7% in 2001, although the trend is sometimes obscured by large yearly variations in hydroelectric power generation. Most of the growth since 2001 can be seen in the expansion of wind generated power, and more recently, in the growth in solar generated power. California is a leading state with around 29% of electricity coming from RPS-eligible renewable green energy (including hydropower).[21]

In Britain, 14 more cities and towns had signed up to the UK100 local government network’s target of 100% clean energy by 2050, bringing the total to 84. Among the recent local authority recruits were Liverpool City Region, Barking and Dagenham, Bristol, Bury, Peterborough, Redcar and Cleveland.