The next largest share of renewable power was provided by wind power at 5.55% of total power production, amounting to 226.5 terawatt-hours during 2016. By January 2017, the United States nameplate generating capacity for wind power was 82,183 megawatts (MW). Texas remained firmly established as the leader in wind power deployment, followed by Iowa and Oklahoma as of year end 2016.
In its 17th year, GEO conducts educational public outreach on all forms of renewable energy. GEO’s clean-energy expertise and experience also provides practical policy advice to private and public decision makers. Unique among nonprofit advocacy groups in linking both economic and environmental perspectives, GEO relies on strong internal technical groups of architects, scientists, engineers, and energy system integrators within the business, education, and government sectors. Backed by solid community-based support, GEO mobilizes resources across Ohio with dozens of diverse partners joining together in groundbreaking renewable energy and energy efficiency projects.
To better understand this scenario, the top half of Table 1 breaks down the rate of energy consumption, Ė, into three fundamental factors (3): where N is the global population, GDP/N is the globally averaged gross domestic product (GDP) per capita, and Ė/GDP is the globally averaged energy intensity (i.e., the energy consumed per unit of GDP). The world population was ≈6.1 billion in 2001, and in the scenario represented in Table 1, the global population is projected to increase by 0.9% yr−1 to ≈9.4 billion by 2050. World per capita GDP was ≈$7,500 per capita in 2001. In the Table 1 scenario, GDP/N is projected to increase at the historical average rate of 1.4% yr−1 to ≈$15,000 per capita by 2050. No country has a policy against economic growth, so this increase in GDP/N seems quite reasonable and in fact may well be modest given the rapid economic growth being experienced by China and India at present. With no changes in the globally averaged energy intensity, the world energy consumption rate would grow, due to population growth and economic growth, by 2.3% yr−1, from 13.5 TW in 2001 to ≈40.8 TW in 2050. However, the global average energy intensity has declined continuously over the past 100 yr, due to improvements in technology throughout the energy production, distribution, and end-use chain. In anticipation of continued improvements in technology, the global average energy intensity in the Table 1 scenario is projected to decrease at approximately the historical average rate of 0.8% yr−1, from 0.29 W/($ yr−1) in 2001 to 0.20 W/($ yr−1) by 2050. This decrease offsets somewhat the projected increases in population and per capita GDP, so that the world energy consumption rate is instead projected to grow by 2.3% yr−1 − 0.8% yr−1 = 1.5% yr−1, from 13.5 TW in 2001 to ≈27 TW by 2050. Hence, even factoring in a decrease in energy intensity, the world energy consumption rate is projected to double from 13.5 TW in 2001 to 27 TW by 2050 and to triple to 43 TW by 2100 (4).
Several federal government tax credits, grants, and loan programs are available for qualifying renewable energy technologies and projects. The federal tax credits include the Renewable Energy Production Tax Credit (PTC), the Business Energy Investment Tax Credit (ITC), and the personal income tax credit. Grant and loan programs may be available from several government agencies, including the U.S. Department of Agriculture, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and the U.S. Department of the Interior. Every state has some financial incentives available to support or subsidize the installation of renewable energy equipment.
Research is also undertaken in this field of artificial photosynthesis. It involves the use of nanotechnology to store solar electromagnetic energy in chemical bonds, by splitting water to produce hydrogen fuel or then combining with carbon dioxide to make biopolymers such as methanol. Many large national and regional research projects on artificial photosynthesis are now trying to develop techniques integrating improved light capture, quantum coherence methods of electron transfer and cheap catalytic materials that operate under a variety of atmospheric conditions. Senior researchers in the field have made the public policy case for a Global Project on Artificial Photosynthesis to address critical energy security and environmental sustainability issues.
Jump up ^ Armaroli, Nicola; Balzani, Vincenzo (2016). “Solar Electricity and Solar Fuels: Status and Perspectives in the Context of the Energy Transition”. Chemistry – A European Journal. 22: 32–57. doi:10.1002/chem.201503580.
Everything the other reviewer stated was correct. The CEO Paul Graff is not just rude, he is sociopathic. He just yells, refuses to be reasoned with. I offered him a deal nobody could refuse, paying more for a system that had no contract and all I asked for was a contract that described the system. But no. So I brought a negotiator at no cost in to settle the dispute as Paul saw fit. He had never had anything intelligent to offer. They refused to participate. A year later they brought a forced arbitration upon me with “expedited proceedures.” I think they hoped to ambush me. They did and they still lost. 9 out 10 forced arbitrations are won by the corporation. So for them to lose everything with a lawyer on their case no less, this looks really bad. These are criminals. Dumb, rude, criminals. Bait and switch is their bread and butter. And everything is your fault. They charge you for exery mistake they make, so they try hard to make as many as possible. Then they yell at you. If they call, hang up. These are truly criminals. I’m not kidding. They bait you with what you want but install the very cheapest possible. This bait and switch. In my case, they forgot to give me a contract. Guess what? If you accept work from them they cite a oecedent that ressurects some mythical contract. It’s dumb. The bait and switch is so effective that even caught, they still had enough money for materials labor abd a 40% profit margin on only a down payment of 50% of the total they claimed I owed. Even having lost their own forced arbitration, they still profited that much, EVEN WITHOUT A CONTRACT. Just run away. Hang up. All lies…. read more
Jump up ^ National Renewable Energy Laboratory (2007-03-02). “Research Advantages: Cellulosic Ethanol” (PDF). National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-01-25. Retrieved 2012-04-02.
We had Angie Mccomb come over and do an energy audit. She recommended replacing our renewable energy and adding solar. Best decision we have made. We live in Garland and are with Garland Power Light and this was our only hope of escaping raising energy rates.
CAISO and Southern California Edison, which was going to buy power from the new plant, supported it as necessary to protect against potential power interruptions. Though solar and wind power production was increasing, they said those sources couldn’t be counted on because their production is variable, not constant.
While a relatively small fraction of our overall energy supply in 2012 (the most recent data from the Energy Information Administration), the United States was the world’s largest consumer of renewable energy from geothermal, solar, wood, wind, and waste for electric power generation producing 22% of the world’s total. In 2015, the distribution of U.S. renewable consumption by source was [iii]:
The Solar updraft tower is a renewable-energy power plant for generating electricity from low temperature solar heat. Sunshine heats the air beneath a very wide greenhouse-like roofed collector structure surrounding the central base of a very tall chimney tower. The resulting convection causes a hot air updraft in the tower by the chimney effect. This airflow drives wind turbines placed in the chimney updraft or around the chimney base to produce electricity. Plans for scaled-up versions of demonstration models will allow significant power generation, and may allow development of other applications, such as water extraction or distillation, and agriculture or horticulture. A more advanced version of a similarly themed technology is the Vortex engine which aims to replace large physical chimneys with a vortex of air created by a shorter, less-expensive structure.
100% renewable electricity | The UK’s only 100% green gas supplier | Every unit used matched with one from certified sources | No call menus | No call waiting | No exit fees | No fixed contracts | Free smart meter on our time-of-day TIDE tariff
And get off it we have. As of last year, 32.9 percent of PG&E’s power came from renewable resources, as did 28.2 percent from SoCal Edison and a whopping 43.2 percent from San Diego Gas — granted, SDG&E is by far the state’s smallest investor-owned utility.
The typical cost factors for solar power include the costs of the modules, the frame to hold them, wiring, inverters, labour cost, any land that might be required, the grid connection, maintenance and the solar insolation that location will receive. Adjusting for inflation, it cost $96 per watt for a solar module in the mid-1970s. Process improvements and a very large boost in production have brought that figure down to 68 cents per watt in February 2016, according to data from Bloomberg New Energy Finance. Palo Alto California signed a wholesale purchase agreement in 2016 that secured solar power for 3.7 cents per kilowatt-hour. And in sunny Dubai large-scale solar generated electricity sold in 2016 for just 2.99 cents per kilowatt-hour – “competitive with any form of fossil-based electricity — and cheaper than most.”
When water is used to generate electricity, it is called hydroelectric power, or hydropower. Most hydropower plants use a dam on a river to create a reservoir to store water. As water is released from the reservoir, it flows through a turbine and causes it to spin. This activates a generator that produces electricity.
In 2016, about 10% of total U.S. energy consumption was from renewable energy sources (or about 10.2 quadrillion British thermal units (Btu)—1 quadrillion is the number 1 followed by 15 zeros). About 55% of U.S. renewable energy use is by the electric power sector for producing electricity, and about 15% of U.S. electricity generation was from renewable energy sources in 2016.
India is another rising clean energy leader. While India ranked the 10th in private clean energy investments among G-20 members in 2009, over the next 10 years it is expected to rise to the third position, with annual clean energy investment under current policies forecast to grow by 369 percent between 2010 and 2020.
Concentrated solar power plants may use thermal storage to store solar energy, such as in high-temperature molten salts. These salts are an effective storage medium because they are low-cost, have a high specific heat capacity, and can deliver heat at temperatures compatible with conventional power systems. This method of energy storage is used, for example, by the Solar Two power station, allowing it to store 1.44 TJ in its 68 m³ storage tank, enough to provide full output for close to 39 hours, with an efficiency of about 99%.
Effect of orthotropy ratio of the shear web on the aero-elasticity and torque generation of a hybrid wind turbine bladeEffect of orthotropy ratio of the shear web on the aero-elasticity and torque generation of a hybrid wind turbine blade
We still use solar power in the same two forms today, thermal and photovoltaic. The first concentrates sunlight, converts it into heat, and applies it to a steam generator or engine to be converted into electricity in order “to warm buildings, heat water, generate electricity, dry crops or destroy dangerous waste.” Electricity is generated when the heated fluid drives turbines or other machinery. The second form of solar power produces electricity directly without moving parts. Today’s photovoltaic system is composed of cells made of silicon, the second most abundant element in the earth’s crust. “Power is produced when sunlight strikes the semiconductor material and creates an electric current.” The smallest unit of the system is a cell. Cells wired together form a module, and modules wired together form a panel. A group of panels is called an array, and several arrays form an array field.
Jump up ^ ‹See Tfd›”DOE Finalizes $737 Million Loan Guarantee to Tonopah Solar Energy for Nevada Project” (Press release). Loan Programs Office (LPO), Dept. of Energy (DOE). September 28, 2011. Retrieved 29 September 2011.
A synthetic, spatially decorrelating solar irradiance generator and application to a LV grid model with high PV penetrationA synthetic, spatially decorrelating solar irradiance generator and application to a LV grid model with high PV penetration
Although many older thermoelectric power plants with once-through cooling or cooling ponds use more water than CSP, meaning that more water passes through their systems, most of the cooling water returns to the water body available for other uses, and they consume less water by evaporation. For instance, the median coal power plant in the US with once-through cooling uses 36,350 gal/MWhr, but only 250 gal/MWhr (less than one percent) is lost through evaporation. Since the 1970s, the majority of US power plants have used recirculating systems such as cooling towers rather than once-through systems.
My reporting as MIT Technology Review’s senior editor for materials has taken me, among other places, to the oil-rich deserts of the Middle East and to China, where mountains are being carved away to build the looming cities.… More
Nuclear reactors emit no greenhouse gases, and are the closest thing to a non polluting energy source apart from renewable energy. Modern reactors are safer, and are more economic than what they used to be. The main issues with nuclear energy are the safety standards of a nuclear power plant and the storage of its radioactive waste. It is still a debated issue about whether or not nuclear power is a good alternative to limit our dependence on imported oil. France is the world leader in nuclear energy production, relying on nuclear power for 80% of its electricity.
“This is how the solar revolution happens—one hot sales meeting at a time,” Off-Grid’s Kim Schreiber whispered to me as we watched one of the company’s salesmen, an Ivorian named Seko Serge Lewis, at work. We were visiting the village of Grand Zattry with Off-Grid’s Ivory Coast sales director, Max-Marc Fossouo. A couple of dogs tussled nearby; a motorbike rolled past with six people on board. In the courtyard next to us, a woman was doing the day’s laundry in a bucket with a washboard. Her husband listened to the sales pitch from Lewis, who was showing him pictures on his cell phone of other customers in the village.
Solar water heating makes an important contribution to renewable heat in many countries, most notably in China, which now has 70% of the global total (180 GWth). Most of these systems are installed on multi-family apartment buildings and meet a portion of the hot water needs of an estimated 50–60 million households in China. Worldwide, total installed solar water heating systems meet a portion of the water heating needs of over 70 million households. The use of biomass for heating continues to grow as well. In Sweden, national use of biomass energy has surpassed that of oil. Direct geothermal for heating is also growing rapidly. The newest addition to Heating is from Geothermal Heat Pumps which provide both heating and cooling, and also flatten the electric demand curve and are thus an increasing national priority (see also Renewable thermal energy).
UCS analysis found that a 25-by-2025 national renewable electricity standard would stimulate $263.4 billion in new capital investment for renewable energy technologies, $13.5 billion in new landowner income from? biomass production and/or wind land lease payments, and $11.5 billion in new property tax revenue for local communities .
Tax Credit Tax credits are one type of incentive to install solar/renewable energy systems that may be available at the local, state and/or federal levels. The Federal Income Tax Credit was extended in December of 2015 for several years and is available for both homes and businesses which install solar power systems. Please consult your tax advisor for more details.
^ National Renewable Energy Laboratory (2 March 2007). “Research Advantages: Cellulosic Ethanol” (PDF). National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 January 2012. Retrieved 2 April 2012.
In the 1980s and early 1990s, most photovoltaic modules provided remote-area power supply, but from around 1995, industry efforts have focused increasingly on developing building integrated photovoltaics and power plants for grid connected applications (see photovoltaic power stations article for details). Currently the largest photovoltaic power plant in North America is the Nellis Solar Power Plant (15 MW). There is a proposal to build a Solar power station in Victoria, Australia, which would be the world’s largest PV power station, at 154 MW. Other large photovoltaic power stations include the Girassol solar power plant (62 MW), and the Waldpolenz Solar Park (40 MW).
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